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Volume 10, issue 3
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1403-1415, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1403-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1403-1415, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1403-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Review article 01 Aug 2018

Review article | 01 Aug 2018

North Atlantic subpolar gyre along predetermined ship tracks since 1993: a monthly data set of surface temperature, salinity, and density

Gilles Reverdin1, Hedinn Valdimarsson2, Gael Alory3, Denis Diverres4, Francis Bringas5, Gustavo Goni5, Lars Heilmann6, Leon Chafik7, Tanguy Szekely8, and Andrew R. Friedman9 Gilles Reverdin et al.
  • 1LOCEAN, Sorbonne-Université, CNRS, IRD, MNHN, Paris, France
  • 2Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • 3LEGOS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, IRD, CNES, Toulouse, France
  • 4US IMAGO, IRD, Brest, France
  • 5National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL, USA
  • 6Greenland Institute of natural resources, Nuuk, Greenland, Denmark
  • 7Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 8IUEM, UMS3113, UBO-CNRS-RD, Plouzané, France
  • 9School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

Abstract. We present a binned product of sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface density data in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from 1993 to 2017 that resolves seasonal variability along specific ship routes (https://doi.org/10.6096/SSS-BIN-NASG). The characteristics of this product are described and validated through comparisons to other monthly products. Data presented in this work were collected in regions crossed by two predetermined ship transects, between Denmark and western Greenland (AX01) and between Iceland, Newfoundland, and the northeastern USA (AX02). The data were binned along a selected usable transect. The analysis and the strong correlation between successive seasons indicate that in large parts of the subpolar gyre, the binning approach is robust and resolves the seasonal timescales, in particular after 1997 and in regions away from the continental shelf. Prior to 2002, there was no winter sampling over the West Greenland Shelf. Variability in sea surface salinity increases towards Newfoundland south of 54°N, as well as in the western Iceland Basin along 59°N. Variability in sea surface temperature presents less spatial structure with an increase westward and towards Newfoundland. The contribution of temperature variability to density dominates in the eastern part of the gyre, whereas the contribution of salinity variability dominates in the southwestern part along AX02.

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We report monthly time series of surface temperature, salinity, and density in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in 1993–2017 from hydrographical data collected in particular from thermosalinographs onboard selected ships of opportunity. Most of the time, this data set reproduces well the large-scale variability, except for a few seasons with limited sampling, in particular in winter along western Greenland or northeast of Newfoundland in the presence of sea ice.
We report monthly time series of surface temperature, salinity, and density in the North...
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