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Volume 10, issue 4
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1901-1924, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1901-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1901-1924, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1901-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  18 Oct 2018

18 Oct 2018

SURATLANT: a 1993–2017 surface sampling in the central part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre

Gilles Reverdin1, Nicolas Metzl1, Solveig Olafsdottir2, Virginie Racapé3, Taro Takahashi4, Marion Benetti5, Hedinn Valdimarsson2, Alice Benoit-Cattin2, Magnus Danielsen2, Jonathan Fin1, Aicha Naamar1, Denis Pierrot6, Kevin Sullivan6, Francis Bringas6, and Gustavo Goni6 Gilles Reverdin et al.
  • 1Sorbonne Université/CNRS/IRD/MNHN, Laboratoire d'océanographie et du climat: expérimentations et approches numériques (LOCEAN), Paris, France
  • 2Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • 3Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique et Spatiale (LOPS), CNRS/Ifremer/IRD/UBO-IUEM, Brest, France
  • 4Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA
  • 5Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • 6National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA

Abstract. This paper presents the SURATLANT data set (SURveillance ATLANTique). It consists of individual data of temperature, salinity, parameters of the carbonate system, nutrients, and water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) collected mostly from ships of opportunity since 1993 along transects between Iceland and Newfoundland (https://doi.org/10.17882/54517). We discuss how the data are validated and qualified, their accuracy, and the overall characteristics of the data set. The data are used to reconstruct seasonal cycles and interannual anomalies, in particular of sea surface salinity (SSS); inorganic nutrients; dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); and its isotopic composition δ13CDIC, total alkalinity (At), and water isotope concentrations. Derived parameters such as fCO2 and pH are also estimated. The relation between salinity and At is estimated from these data to investigate the possibility to replace missing At when estimating other parameters of the carbonate system. When examining the average seasonal cycle in the deep ocean, in both these data with other climatologies, we find a period of small seasonal change between January and late April. On the Newfoundland shelf and continental slope, changes related with spring stratification and blooms occur earlier. The data were collected in a period of multi-decennial variability associated with the Atlantic multi-decadal variability with warming between 1994 and 2004–2007, and with the recent cooling having peaked in 2014–2016. We also observe strong salinification in 2004–2009 and fresher waters in 1994–1995 as well as since 2010 south of 54°N and in 2016–2017 north of 54°N. Indication of multi-decadal variability is also suggested by other variables, such as phosphate or DIC, but cannot be well resolved seasonally with the discrete sampling and in the presence of interannual variability. As a whole, over the 24 years, the ocean fCO2 trend (+1.9µatmyr−1) is close to the atmospheric trend and associated with an increase in DIC (+0.77µmolkg−1yr−1). The data also revealed a canonical pH decrease of −0.0021yr−1. There is also a decrease in δ13CDIC between 2005 and 2017 (in winter, −0.014yr−1, but larger in summer, −0.042yr−1), suggesting a significant anthropogenic carbon signal at play together with other processes (mixing, biological activity).

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This paper presents the SURATLANT data set (SURveillance ATLANTique), consisting of individual data of temperature, salinity, parameters of the carbonate system, nutrients, and water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) collected mostly from ships of opportunity since 1993 along transects between Iceland and Newfoundland. These data are used to quantify the seasonal cycle and can be used to investigate long-term tendencies in the surface ocean, including of pCO2 and pH.
This paper presents the SURATLANT data set (SURveillance ATLANTique), consisting of individual...
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