Journal cover Journal topic
Earth System Science Data The Data Publishing Journal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 125-143, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
04 Apr 2013
A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)
B. Pfeil1,2,3, A. Olsen1,2,4,5, D. C. E. Bakker6, S. Hankin7, H. Koyuk8, A. Kozyr9, J. Malczyk10, A. Manke7, N. Metzl11, C. L. Sabine7, J. Akl12,13, S. R. Alin7, N. Bates14, R. G. J. Bellerby2,15,16, A. Borges17, J. Boutin11, P. J. Brown6,18, W.-J. Cai19, F. P. Chavez20, A. Chen21, C. Cosca7, A. J. Fassbender22, R. A. Feely7, M. González-Dávila23, C. Goyet24, B. Hales25, N. Hardman-Mountford26,*, C. Heinze1,2,5,16, M. Hood27, M. Hoppema28, C. W. Hunt29, D. Hydes30, M. Ishii31, T. Johannessen1,2, S. D. Jones32, R. M. Key33, A. Körtzinger34, P. Landschützer6, S. K. Lauvset1,2, N. Lefèvre11, A. Lenton12, A. Lourantou11, L. Merlivat11, T. Midorikawa35, L. Mintrop36, C. Miyazaki37, A. Murata38, A. Nakadate39, Y. Nakano38, S. Nakaoka40, Y. Nojiri40, A. M. Omar5,16, X. A. Padin41, G.-H. Park42, K. Paterson12,13, F. F. Perez41, D. Pierrot42, A. Poisson24, A. F. Ríos41, J. M. Santana-Casiano23, J. Salisbury29, V. V. S. S. Sarma43, R. Schlitzer28, B. Schneider44, U. Schuster6, R. Sieger28, I. Skjelvan1,2,16, T. Steinhoff34, T. Suzuki45, T. Takahashi46, K. Tedesco47,**, M. Telszewski48,**, H. Thomas49, B. Tilbrook12,13,50, J. Tjiputra1,2, D. Vandemark29, T. Veness12,13, R. Wanninkhof51, A. J. Watson6, R. Weiss52, C. S. Wong53, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue38 1Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
2Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
3PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
4Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
5Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen, Norway
6School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
7Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
8Joint Inst. for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
9Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
10Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
11Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France
12CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
13Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
14Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Ferry Reach, Bermuda
15Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway
16Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway
17University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liège, Belgium
18British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
19Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
20Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
21Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
22School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
23Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
24Inst. de Modélisation et d'Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Univ. de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
25Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, USA
26CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia
27Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, Paris, France
28Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
29Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
30National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
31Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
32Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich, UK
33Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
34GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
35Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan
36MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany
37Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan
38Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
39Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
40National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
41Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vigo, Spain
42Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
43National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, India
44Leibnitz Research Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany
45Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
46Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, USA
47International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
48International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Institute of Oceanology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
49Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada
50Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
51Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Atmospheric and Oceanographic Administration, Miami, Florida, USA
52Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
53Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
*formerly at: Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
**formerly at: International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, France
Abstract. A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

Citation: Pfeil, B., Olsen, A., Bakker, D. C. E., Hankin, S., Koyuk, H., Kozyr, A., Malczyk, J., Manke, A., Metzl, N., Sabine, C. L., Akl, J., Alin, S. R., Bates, N., Bellerby, R. G. J., Borges, A., Boutin, J., Brown, P. J., Cai, W.-J., Chavez, F. P., Chen, A., Cosca, C., Fassbender, A. J., Feely, R. A., González-Dávila, M., Goyet, C., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N., Heinze, C., Hood, M., Hoppema, M., Hunt, C. W., Hydes, D., Ishii, M., Johannessen, T., Jones, S. D., Key, R. M., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lourantou, A., Merlivat, L., Midorikawa, T., Mintrop, L., Miyazaki, C., Murata, A., Nakadate, A., Nakano, Y., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., Omar, A. M., Padin, X. A., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Perez, F. F., Pierrot, D., Poisson, A., Ríos, A. F., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Salisbury, J., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Schneider, B., Schuster, U., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Suzuki, T., Takahashi, T., Tedesco, K., Telszewski, M., Thomas, H., Tilbrook, B., Tjiputra, J., Vandemark, D., Veness, T., Wanninkhof, R., Watson, A. J., Weiss, R., Wong, C. S., and Yoshikawa-Inoue, H.: A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 125-143,, 2013.