Journal cover Journal topic
Earth System Science Data The Data Publishing Journal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 145-153, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
04 Apr 2013
Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products
C. L. Sabine1, S. Hankin1, H. Koyuk1,2, D. C. E. Bakker3, B. Pfeil4,5,6, A. Olsen7,8, N. Metzl9, A. Kozyr10, A. Fassbender1,20, A. Manke1,2, J. Malczyk11, J. Akl12,13, S. R. Alin1, R. G. J. Bellerby4,14,*, A. Borges15, J. Boutin9, P. J. Brown3,16, W.-J. Cai17, F. P. Chavez18, A. Chen19, C. Cosca1, R. A. Feely1, M. González-Dávila21, C. Goyet22, N. Hardman-Mountford23,**, C. Heinze4,5,8,14, M. Hoppema24, C. W. Hunt25, D. Hydes26, M. Ishii27, T. Johannessen4,5, R. M. Key28, A. Körtzinger29, P. Landschützer3, S. K. Lauvset4,5, N. Lefèvre9, A. Lenton13, A. Lourantou9, L. Merlivat9, T. Midorikawa30, L. Mintrop31, C. Miyazaki32, A. Murata33, A. Nakadate34, Y. Nakano33, S. Nakaoka35, Y. Nojiri35, A. M. Omar8,14, X. A. Padin36, G.-H. Park37, K. Paterson12,13, F. F. Perez36, D. Pierrot37, A. Poisson22, A. F. Ríos36, J. Salisbury25, J. M. Santana-Casiano21, V. V. S. S. Sarma38, R. Schlitzer24, B. Schneider39, U. Schuster3, R. Sieger24, I. Skjelvan4,5,14, T. Steinhoff29, T. Suzuki40, T. Takahashi41, K. Tedesco42,***, M. Telszewski43,***, H. Thomas44, B. Tilbrook12,13,45, D. Vandemark25, T. Veness13, A. J. Watson3, R. Weiss46, C. S. Wong47, and H. Yoshikawa-Inoue33 1Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
2Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
3School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
4Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
5Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
6PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
7Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen, Norway
8Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
9Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France
10Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
11Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
12CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
13Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
14Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway
15University of Liège, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liège, Belgium
16British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK
17Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
18Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
19Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, China
20School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
21Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
22Institut de Modélisation et d'Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France
23CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia
24Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
25Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
26National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
27Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan
28Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
29GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
30Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan
31MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany
32Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan
33Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
34Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
35National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
36Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vigo, Spain
37Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
38National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, India
39Leibnitz Research Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany
40Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
41Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, USA
42International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
43International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Institute of Oceanology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
44Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada
45Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
46Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, USA
47Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
*formerly at: Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway
**formerly at: Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
***formerly at: International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, France
Abstract. As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions).

Citation: Sabine, C. L., Hankin, S., Koyuk, H., Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Olsen, A., Metzl, N., Kozyr, A., Fassbender, A., Manke, A., Malczyk, J., Akl, J., Alin, S. R., Bellerby, R. G. J., Borges, A., Boutin, J., Brown, P. J., Cai, W.-J., Chavez, F. P., Chen, A., Cosca, C., Feely, R. A., González-Dávila, M., Goyet, C., Hardman-Mountford, N., Heinze, C., Hoppema, M., Hunt, C. W., Hydes, D., Ishii, M., Johannessen, T., Key, R. M., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lourantou, A., Merlivat, L., Midorikawa, T., Mintrop, L., Miyazaki, C., Murata, A., Nakadate, A., Nakano, Y., Nakaoka, S., Nojiri, Y., Omar, A. M., Padin, X. A., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Perez, F. F., Pierrot, D., Poisson, A., Ríos, A. F., Salisbury, J., Santana-Casiano, J. M., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Schneider, B., Schuster, U., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Suzuki, T., Takahashi, T., Tedesco, K., Telszewski, M., Thomas, H., Tilbrook, B., Vandemark, D., Veness, T., Watson, A. J., Weiss, R., Wong, C. S., and Yoshikawa-Inoue, H.: Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 145-153,, 2013.