Journal cover Journal topic
Earth System Science Data The Data Publishing Journal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69-90, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review article
07 Mar 2014
An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2)
D. C. E. Bakker1, B. Pfeil3,2, K. Smith5,4, S. Hankin4, A. Olsen6,3,2, S. R. Alin4, C. Cosca4, S. Harasawa7, A. Kozyr8, Y. Nojiri7, K. M. O'Brien5,4, U. Schuster9,*, M. Telszewski10, B. Tilbrook12,11, C. Wada7, J. Akl11, L. Barbero13, N. R. Bates14, J. Boutin15, Y. Bozec17,16, W.-J. Cai18, R. D. Castle19, F. P. Chavez20, L. Chen22,21, M. Chierici23,24, K. Currie25, H. J. W. de Baar26, W. Evans27,4, R. A. Feely4, A. Fransson28, Z. Gao21, B. Hales29, N. J. Hardman-Mountford30, M. Hoppema31, W.-J. Huang18, C. W. Hunt32, B. Huss19, T. Ichikawa33, T. Johannessen6,3,2, E. M. Jones31, S. D. Jones34, S. Jutterström35, V. Kitidis36, A. Körtzinger37, P. Landschützer1, S. K. Lauvset3,2, N. Lefèvre39,38, A. B. Manke4, J. T. Mathis4, L. Merlivat15, N. Metzl15, A. Murata40, T. Newberger41, A. M. Omar6,3,2, T. Ono33, G.-H. Park42, K. Paterson11, D. Pierrot13, A. F. Ríos43, C. L. Sabine4, S. Saito44, J. Salisbury32, V. V. S. S. Sarma45, R. Schlitzer31, R. Sieger31, I. Skjelvan6,3,2, T. Steinhoff37, K. F. Sullivan13, H. Sun21, A. J. Sutton5,4, T. Suzuki46, C. Sweeney41, T. Takahashi47, J. Tjiputra6,3, N. Tsurushima48, S. M. A. C. van Heuven49, D. Vandemark32, P. Vlahos50, D. W. R. Wallace51, R. Wanninkhof19, and A. J. Watson9,* 1Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
2Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
3Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
4Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
5Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
6Uni Climate, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway
7National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
8Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
9College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
10International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project, Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
11CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Hobart, Australia
12Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Australia
13Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
14Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, Ferry Reach, Bermuda
15Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06), CNRS, IRD, MNHN, LOCEAN Laboratory, Paris, France
16CNRS, UMR 7144, Equipe Chimie Marine, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Roscoff, France
17Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7144, Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, SBR, Roscoff, France
18School of Marine Science and Policy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
19Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida, USA
20Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, USA
21Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, P. R. China
22Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration, Beijing, P. R. China
23Institute of Marine Research, Tromsø, Norway
24Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
25National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Dunedin, New Zealand
26Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, the Netherlands
27Ocean Acidification Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA
28Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway
29College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
30CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Floreat, WA, Australia
31Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
32Ocean Process Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
33National Research Institute for Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Yokohama, Japan
34Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
35IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden
36Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
37GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
38IRD, Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06), CNRS, MNHN, LOCEAN Laboratory, Paris, France
39LaboMar, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil
40Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuda, Japan
41Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
42East Sea Research Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Uljin, Korea
43Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Vigo, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Vigo, Spain
44Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
45National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, India
46Marine Information Research Center, Japan Hydrographic Association, Tokyo, Japan
47Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA
48National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan
49Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
50Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, Connecticut, USA
51Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
*formerly at: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
Abstract. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data (increased from 6.3 million to 10.1 million surface water fCO2 values) and extended data coverage (from 1968–2007 to 1968–2011). The quality control criteria, while identical in both versions, have been applied more strictly in version 2 than in version 1. The SOCAT website ( has links to quality control comments, metadata, individual data set files, and synthesis and gridded data products. Interactive online tools allow visitors to explore the richness of the data. Applications of SOCAT include process studies, quantification of the ocean carbon sink and its spatial, seasonal, year-to-year and longerterm variation, as well as initialisation or validation of ocean carbon models and coupled climate-carbon models.

Data coverage

Repository-References: Individual data set files and synthesis product: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.811776
Gridded products: doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.SOCAT_V2_GRID
Available at:
Coverage: 79° S to 90° N; 180° W to 180° E
Location Name: Global Oceans and Coastal Seas
Date/Time Start: 16 November 1968
Date/Time End: 26 December 2011

Citation: Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Smith, K., Hankin, S., Olsen, A., Alin, S. R., Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Kozyr, A., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K. M., Schuster, U., Telszewski, M., Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Akl, J., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Cai, W.-J., Castle, R. D., Chavez, F. P., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., de Baar, H. J. W., Evans, W., Feely, R. A., Fransson, A., Gao, Z., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Hoppema, M., Huang, W.-J., Hunt, C. W., Huss, B., Ichikawa, T., Johannessen, T., Jones, E. M., Jones, S. D., Jutterström, S., Kitidis, V., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Manke, A. B., Mathis, J. T., Merlivat, L., Metzl, N., Murata, A., Newberger, T., Omar, A. M., Ono, T., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Pierrot, D., Ríos, A. F., Sabine, C. L., Saito, S., Salisbury, J., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Sullivan, K. F., Sun, H., Sutton, A. J., Suzuki, T., Sweeney, C., Takahashi, T., Tjiputra, J., Tsurushima, N., van Heuven, S. M. A. C., Vandemark, D., Vlahos, P., Wallace, D. W. R., Wanninkhof, R., and Watson, A. J.: An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69-90,, 2014.